Bleeding Under the Skin of Cats

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Petechia, Ecchymosis, and Bruising in Cats

Bruising, petechia, and ecchymosis are all identified by skin or mucous membrane discoloration, typically due to injuries that lead to bleeding (hemorrhaging) under the affected area. More specifically, bruising is an injury to the skin, which causes blood vessels to rupture and the discoloration of tissue due to the presence of red blood cells; petechia is a small red or purple spot on the body caused by minor hemorrhaging; and ecchymosis is a purplish patch under the moist tissues of the body (mucous membranes) or under the skin. Petechia, bruises, or ecchymoses may appear suddenly or after a minimal injury.

Symptoms and types

Other than the skin discoloration or bruising of the mucous membranes related to hemorrhages, there are no specific symptoms associated with petechia and ecchymosis.

Causes

Although petechia, ecchymosis, and bruising often occur due to injuries, the following may also cause or make the cat more susceptible to this type of hemorrhaging:

Thrombocytopenia

  • Immune-mediated condition (drug-induced, idiopathic, or related to neoplasia)
  • Bone marrow suppression or diseases (e.g., chemotherapy, lymphoma, estrogen toxicity)
  • Rodenticide poisoning

Thrombocytopathy

  • Congenital or acquired disorders affecting the platelet's ability to adhere to damaged blood vessels

Vascular disease

  • Vasculitis secondary to infection such as Feline Infectious Peritonitis

Diagnosis

You will need to give the veterinarian a thorough history of your cat’s health, including the onset and nature of the symptoms. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination, specifically searching for the presence of lesions. Routine laboratory tests include complete blood count, biochemistry profile, and urinalysis.

Blood count results may reveal thrombocytopenia, a blood disease that is one of the most important causes of these hemorrhagic conditions. This is because platelets are essential cells for normal blood clotting, and a significant decline in platelet number may lead to hemorrhages throughout the body. To assess the blood clotting system, the veterinarian will measure the time it takes for the cat's blood to clot. A prolonged clotting time will warrant further investigation. Bone marrow samples are also taken to evaluate the bone marrow functions and diseases.

Biochemistry profile, meanwhile, may indicate liver or kidney disease, depending on the underlying disease. And urinalysis may identify immune-mediated diseases associated with hematuria and proteinuria.

Other laboratory tests include X-rays and ultrasounds. Abdominal X-rays to assess the liver and kidney size and abdominal ultrasounds to identify complications in other organs.

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platelet

A cell that aids in clotting

petechiae

Small purple or red spots on an animal’s skin; due to a small hemorrhage

proteinuria

Protein found in the urine

subcutaneous

Found underneath the dermis

urinalysis

An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness

petechia

A small hemorrhage

mucous membrane

A special type of tissue that exudes mucus

estrogen

The type of female hormone produced in the ovaries that contributes to sex drive and female characteristics

hematuria

Blood in the urine

idiopathic

Relating to a disease of unknown origin, which may or may not have arisen spontaneously

lymphoma

A term for a type of neoplasm that is made up of lymphoid tissue; these masses are usually malignant in nature

ecchymosis

A patch of bleeding beneath the skin; a bruise

Courtesy of petmd.com Original Article

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