Bacterial Infection of the Breast in Cats

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Mastitis in Cats

A bacterial infection of one or more lactating (milk producing) glands in the breasts, a condition referred to clinically as mastitis, is often the result of an ascending infection, trauma to the lactating gland, or an infection that has been spread through the blood stream.

Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococci, and β-hemolytic Streptococci are some of the main bacteria that are found to be most commonly involved. It is a potentially life-threatening infection, in some cases leading to septic shock, the direct effect of the mammary glands with systemic involvement.

This condition mainly affects postpartum queens, but rarely occurs in pseudopregnant lactating queens too.

Symptoms and Types

  • Loss of appetite
  • Lethargy
  • Firm, swollen, warm, and painful mammary gland(s) from which purulent (pus-like) or hemorrhagic fluid can be expressed
  • Neglect of kittens (typically due to pain when attempting to nurse)
  • Failure of kittens to thrive
  • Fever, dehydration, and septic shock with systemic involvement
  • Abscesses or gangrene of gland(s), if left untreated

Causes

  • Ascending infection via teat canals
  • Trauma inflicted on the mammary glands by a kitten's toenails or teeth
  • Poor hygiene
  • Systemic infection originating elsewhere in the body

Diagnosis

You will need to give a thorough history of your cat's health, onset of symptoms, and possible incidents that might have led to this condition. A complete blood profile is then typically recommended, including a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis.

If the infection is present, the milk is normally slightly more acidic than the serum is; it may also have increased alkalinity with infection. Neutrophils, macrophages, and other mononuclear cells can be normally observed in high numbers in normal milk; however, the presence of large numbers of free bacteria and degenerative neutrophils are noted with the presence of septic disease. A bacterial culture will be necessary for identifying the organism.

If there is cancer present in the breast, the affected glands will not produce milk. Differentiation between malignant and benign condition will be achieved with an examination and culture of the mother's milk.

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pus

A product made of fluid, cell waste, and cells

purulent

Anything that contains pus

prognosis

The prediction of a disease’s outcome in advance

sepsis

A medical condition; the contamination of a living thing by a harmful type of bacteria

systemic

Something that is related to the whole body and not just one particular part or organ

urinalysis

An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness

teat

A nipple, as in on ruminants and equine animals

postpartum

The period that immediately comes after the birthing process

mammary glands

The glands in female animals that are used to produce milk; also called the udder or breast

gangrene

Necrosis of a body part that can be attributed to poor circulation

ducts

A passage in the body with walls

dehydration

A medical condition in which the body has lost fluid or water in excessive amounts

hemolytic

The removal and destruction of red blood cells

hypoglycemia

Low amounts of glucose in the blood

benign

Not being able to cause harm; the opposite of malignant.

malignant

Something that becomes worse or life threatening as it spreads

mastitis

An infection of the udder; may be infectious or not

Courtesy of petmd.com Original Article