Anaerobic Bacterial Infections in Cats

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Anaerobes are a normal part of the body's chemical community, living in symbiosis in the cat's abdomen, vaginal canal, intestines and mouth. However, when something happens to disrupt the balance of bacteria, such as what occurs with deep injuries, surgery or internal infections, these bacteria can invade the tissue, leading to deep infection and tissue death. If left untreated, an anaerobic infection can lead to shock and even death.

The bacteria which cause anaerobic infections are able to grow best in the absence of free oxygen. Consequently, these bacteria often thrive in the mouth around the gums; in deep wounds, such as those caused by puncture to the skin; in wounds caused by fractured bone, where the bone has broken through to the surface; and in deep bite wounds.

Symptoms and Types

Depending on the cause of the anaerobic infection, cats may display a variety of symptoms. Cats that have developed an anaerobic bacterial infection because of a wound, for instance, may display bite marks, have pus oozing from the wound, or open fractures (where bone sticks out). Moreover, wounds infected with anaerobic bacteria will be slow to heal. Other common symptoms of anaerobic bacterial infections in cats include fever, lameness, difficulty eating, and loss of appetite (related to infection of the gums).

There are also several types of bacteria that can lead to infections, including:

  • Bacteroides
  • Fusobacterium
  • Actinomyces
  • Clostridium
  • Peptostreptococcus

Causes

The ultimate cause of an anaerobic bacterial infection is the disruption of normal bacterial balance within the cat's body. This can be due to deep injury, trauma, or recent surgical procedures (such as abdominal surgery or when metal implants are placed within the body to support broken bones).

Diagnosis

You will need to give your veterinarian a thorough history of your cat's health, onset of symptoms, and possible incidents that might have led to this condition, such as injuries, even slight injuries, fights your cat might have had with another animal, problems eating (which may be related to a mouth infection), and any recent surgeries. Your doctor will need to rule out other causes before making a confirmation of anaerobic infection.

Standard tests include a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis, any of which may show a higher than normal white blood cell count, or evidence of a systemic infection. Your veterinarian will be taking samples of any pus along with the tissue (skin/muscle) around the wound to be laboratory cultured (grown) without oxygen. If there is growth, this may be taken as a confirmation that anaerobic bacteria are present.

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systemic

Something that is related to the whole body and not just one particular part or organ

urinalysis

An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness

uterus

The hollow bodily organ that holds the embryo and fetus and provides nourishment; only found in female animals.

symbiosis

A relationship between two organisms in which the relationship benefits both parties

pus

A product made of fluid, cell waste, and cells

anaerobic bacteria

Bacteria that does not require the presence of free oxygen to live, survive, and reproduce; may even be hindered by the presence of free oxygen in their environment.

lameness

Any type of pain or tenderness or lack of soundness in the feet or legs of animals

anaerobic

a) living in an environment lacking free oxygen b) pertaining to an organism with the ability to live in an environment lacking free oxygen.

rump

The rear end of an animal

Courtesy of petmd.com Original Article