Abnormal Protein Production in Dogs

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Paraproteinemia in Dogs

Plasma cells are white blood cells, which produce large quantities of antibodies, essential to the body's immune response to invasions of bacteria and viruses. Antibodies are also called immunoglobulins, small protein molecules found in the blood or other body fluids and used by the immune system to fight against foreign particles, including bacteria and viruses.

In paraproteinemia, abnormal proteins called paraprotein (proteins in the blood or urine), or M component, are produced by a single clone (group) of plasma cells. Such production of abnormal proteins is commonly seen in plasma cell tumors and may also be seen in some other types of tumors. This condition is usually seen in middle-aged to older dogs.

Symptoms and Types

  • Generalized weakness
  • Lethargy
  • Lameness
  • Nose bleed
  • Blindness
  • Increased thirst and urination
  • Seizures
  • Memory loss

Causes

  • Cancers
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Viral Infections
  • Exposure to carcinogens (e.g., paints or solvents)

Diagnosis

You will need to give a thorough history of your dog's health, onset of symptoms, and possible incidents that might have led to this condition, such as infections, or contact with carcinogenic substances. Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical examination, including routine laboratory testing. A complete blood profile will be conducted, including a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis. Blood testing may reveal anemia, abnormally low levels of leukocytes or white blood cells (leukopenia), or abnormally low levels of platelets (thrombocytopenia).

A biochemistry profile may show abnormally high levels of proteins in the blood, low levels of albumin (a type of protein), abnormally high levels of calcium (hypercalcemia), and high levels of urea and creatinine in the blood. The urinalysis may show the presence of protein in the urine (proteinuria). More specific testing will also be conducted to diagnose various diseases.

Thoracic and abdominal X-rays will be taken to identify where lymphoma is present. A sample of bone marrow may be taken, which will reveal more details associated with this disease. Similarly, samples from affected lymph nodes will also be taken to identify the type of cancer cells or infectious agents that are attacking the body.

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radiation therapy

A treatment of certain neoplasms that is administered using an x ray

urea

The product of protein being metabolized; can be found in blood or urine.

urinalysis

An in-depth examination of the properties of urine; used to determine the presence or absence of illness

proteinuria

Protein found in the urine

lymph nodes

Small structures that filter out the lymph and store lymphocytes

anemia

A condition of the blood in which normal red blood cell counts or hemoglobin are lacking.

leukopenia

A decrease in the number of white blood cells (abnormal)

albumin

A type of protein that can be dissolved in water; found in milk, egg white, certain muscle, blood, and some urine.

lymphoma

A term for a type of neoplasm that is made up of lymphoid tissue; these masses are usually malignant in nature

Courtesy of petmd.com Original Article